Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)
Explains what CBT is, what it treats and how to find a therapist. Also includes guidance on how to try CBT by yourself.
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is a type of talking therapy. It is a common treatment for a range of mental health problems.
CBT teaches you coping skills for dealing with different problems. It focuses on how your thoughts, beliefs and attitudes affect your feelings and actions.
CBT is very, very good for helping me not listen to my self-critical voice, which is so damaging.
How does CBT work?
Watch our video to find out more about how CBT works, and whether it might be helpful for you.
What is the theory behind CBT?
CBT is based on the idea that how we think about situations can affect the way we feel and behave. For example, if you interpret a situation negatively, you might experience negative emotions. And those bad feelings might lead you to behave in a certain way.
CBT combines two types of therapy to help you deal with these thoughts and behaviours:
- cognitive therapy, examining the things you think
- behaviour therapy, examining the things you do.
It got me through a really tough time, from being suicidal and off work on long-term sick leave, to fully functioning again and now in a successful career. It pulled me back from a very dark place and reintroduced structure to my life when I'd given up.
CBT is a common treatment for many mental health problems and experiences, including:
- anger problems
- anxiety and panic attacks
- bipolar disorder
- drug or alcohol problems
- eating problems
- obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
- perinatal mental health problems
- post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
- schizoaffective disorder
- sleep problems
Sometimes you might be offered an adaptation of CBT to treat a mental health problem. Some adaptations of CBT for specific problems might have a slightly different name.
For example, you may be offered trauma-focused CBT (TF-CBT) to treat post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
You may also be offered CBT for physical health problems. This includes if you experience a mental health problem alongside a physical health problem.
CBT is learning to stop the cycle of negative thinking. I still have relapses now and it is the one tool that I use to get me out of the truly dark spots.
In CBT, you work with a therapist to identify and challenge negative thought patterns and behaviour.
You and your therapist might focus on what is going on in your life right now. You might also talk about how your past experiences have affected you.
CBT is usually a short-term treatment where you have a set number of sessions. This may vary depending on your local area or therapy service, and the reason you’re having CBT.
It can be daunting when faced with a list of things you can't do, but CBT helped me to break up my goals into manageable chunks.
During the sessions
A typical CBT session may include:
- working through exercises with your therapist to explore your thoughts, feelings and behaviour
- agreeing some activities to work on in your own time
- going over what you did in previous sessions and discussing what progress you’ve made.
Outside the sessions
CBT can involve activities for you to do outside your sessions with a therapist. This might include filling in worksheets or keeping a diary.
You may need to commit your own time to complete the work over the course of treatment. You may also need to continue this after the treatment has ended.
Our resource on what happens in therapy has more information about therapy sessions. You can also find out more about how CBT works on the British Association for Behavioural & Cognitive Psychotherapies (BABCP) website, including information in different languages.
CBT got me through my chronic health anxiety disorder. It was a tough six months, but I still use the skills I learnt over 10 years ago to rationalise with myself.
Speak to your GP and they can refer you for CBT through the NHS for free. Or in England, you may be able to refer yourself via the NHS talking therapies programme. The type of CBT you're offered may depend on the severity of your symptoms.
The NHS talking therapies services finder can help you find out which services are available in your local area. Or you can try searching on the NHS mental health services finder (both for England only). Some charities or your workplace may also offer access to a CBT therapist for free.
NHS waiting lists for CBT can be long, so you may decide to see a therapist privately if you can afford it. You can find accredited CBT therapists through the British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies (BABCP). Our tips on finding a private therapist may also be useful.
I still get anxious, but CBT helped me to gain insight and perspective. It was the start of my journey to recovery, though not the only part.
You can also talk to your doctor or healthcare team about whether it might help to do some CBT by yourself. They might be able to:
- Give you access to an online CBT service like Beating the Blues, which is available for free in some areas. See our pages on online mental health to find out more about apps and online tools.
- Recommend books, for example from the Reading Well series of self-help books.
- Suggest worksheets or other resources that could be helpful for you to try.
I had previously tried CBT when I was first diagnosed, which I didn't find helpful. However the second time I tried it, it completely changed my life.
I was encouraged to try CBT again with a different therapist. I like this one and am getting on much better. Which therapist you have makes a big difference!
This information was published in September 2021. We will revise it in 2024.
References and bibliography available on request.
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