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Explains what trauma is and how it affects your mental health, including how you can help yourself, what treatments are available and how to overcome barriers to getting the right support. Also includes tips for people who want to support someone who has gone through trauma.

Mae'r dudalen hon hefyd ar gael yn Gymraeg. This link will take you to a Welsh translation of this page.

What is trauma?

Going through very stressful, frightening or distressing events is sometimes called trauma. When we talk about emotional or psychological trauma, we might mean:

  • situations or events we find traumatic
  • how we're affected by our experiences.

Traumatic events can happen at any age and can cause long-lasting harm. Everyone has a different reaction to trauma, so you might notice any effects quickly, or a long time afterwards.

I wish there was more awareness of trauma and the way it affects a person's thought process and behaviour. [...] Self-preservation behaviours can be greatly misinterpreted or misunderstood.

If you've been affected by trauma, it's important to remember that you survived however you could and are having common, normal reactions. Find out more on our page on the effects of trauma.

Going through further trauma can also cause you to start being affected by past experiences, or make existing problems worse. It's ok to ask for help at any time – including if you're not sure if you've experienced trauma.

I left home at 18 to escape my home life... I used alcohol, had very risky [...] relationships, was in a constant state of terrible anxiety, self-harmed and at times was very suicidal... but I did not have the vocabulary to describe this either to myself or others.

What experiences might be traumatic?

What's traumatic is personal. Other people can't know how you feel about your own experiences or if they were traumatic for you. You might have similar experiences to someone else, but be affected differently. 

Trauma can include events where you feel:

  • frightened
  • under threat
  • humiliated
  • rejected
  • abandoned
  • invalidated
  • unsafe
  • unsupported
  • trapped
  • ashamed
  • powerless.

Ways trauma can happen include:

  • one-off or ongoing events
  • being directly harmed
  • witnessing harm to someone else
  • living in a traumatic atmosphere
  • being affected by trauma in a family or community.

Your experience of trauma might relate to parts of your identity, including if you've been harassed, bullied or discriminated against. If you've experienced trauma and identify as LGBTQIA+, our information on LGBTQIA+ mental health may be helpful for you.

Racial trauma

The impact racism can have on your mind and body is sometimes described as racial trauma. There's no universal definition of racial trauma. Some professionals use it to mean all the effects that encountering racism can have on how we think, feel and behave. Others use it to describe a specific set of symptoms.

Find out more about racial trauma

For me, the memories have always been like a song I get stuck in my head. They play over and over, and sometimes I remember the words and sing along, and sometimes it's just the instruments. But they never really go away, and sometimes it gets so loud, I can barely hear myself think.

Adverse Childhood Experiences

Some people use the term Adverse Childhood Experiences (also known as ACEs) to describe stressful or difficult experiences in childhood, including sexual, physical or emotional abuse or neglect. Research has shown links between these types of experiences and both physical and mental health problems.

If you have been abused or neglected in childhood, the National Association for People Abused in Childhood (NAPAC) is there to support you. Our pages on abuse also list organisations that can provide support with abuse that happened at any age.

" "

My cPTSD diagnosis

I don't want to talk to anyone, and all I can think about is what has happened and that it will happen again.

Can trauma cause mental health problems?

Trauma can sometimes directly cause mental health problems, or make you more vulnerable to developing them. It is among the potential causes of all mental health problems. It can be difficult to tell which problems are being caused by trauma.

Some conditions are also known to develop as a direct result of trauma, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complex post-traumatic stress disorder (complex PTSD)

Trauma sticks with you, even after the terrible moment has passed. It becomes a life sentence for a crime you didn't commit.

How you're affected may depend on other things too, such as:

  • previous experiences of trauma
  • other stresses or worries at the time or later on 
  • being harmed by people close to you
  • whether anyone helped or supported you.

My high functioning depression and anxiety is a result of childhood trauma that lay dormant from age 13 until it [was] triggered when I was 39.

If you told someone about what happened and they didn't listen to you or help you, this might have stopped you getting the support you needed or made you feel alone – which might have made the effects of trauma worse.

Different perspectives on trauma and mental health

There are various approaches to trauma and mental health problems. Some people find it helpful to get a diagnosis because this feels validating or explains what they're going through.

Others feel this makes the focus of their problems more medical than is helpful. They argue that professionals should consider what in their life may have contributed to their difficulties, and help with these. Not focus on finding problems in them as an individual.

Connecting with people who have also survived trauma can sometimes be particularly helpful, for example through peer support. This includes if you don't see your experiences in terms of medical problems or symptoms, or if mental health services have made things worse for you. Some people find it helpful to join groups that are part of a survivor's movement, such as the National Survivor User Network (NSUN).

However you prefer to think of your own experiences, we hope that you will find the information in these pages useful when considering different options for care and support.

Second sight

Trauma is an unpredictable beast. The enormity of my sensory loss hit me hard.

This information was published in January 2020. We will revise it in 2023.

References and bibliography available on request.

If you want to reproduce this content, see our permissions and licensing page.

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