What does being an informal patient mean?
This is when you, or someone who looks after you, agree for you to stay in hospital to get treatment and support for your mental health. This is sometimes called being a voluntary patient.
It's normal to feel nervous, worried or upset about going into hospital. We're here to support you.
Jump to page information on:
- Who decides if I need to go into hospital?
- What should I take into hospital?
- What will happen when I arrive at hospital?
- Will I have to follow rules when I'm in hospital?
- What treatment and support will I get in hospital?
- What are my rights when I'm in hospital?
- Are there situations where I might have less rights?
- What if I'm not happy with how I'm being treated?
- What happens when I leave hospital?
When I went in, I didn't know what to bring or what it would be like.
You should only go into hospital for your mental health if it's the only way for you to get the treatment and support you need.
You will usually need to agree to going into hospital. But in some cases, like if you're under 16 years old, your parent, carer or guardian might be able to agree on your behalf.
In some cases your care team will try to find another way to look after you. This might be if you change your mind about going into hospital, or if your parent, carer or guardian doesn't agree to you going into hospital.
If your care team still thinks the only way to keep you safe and get you the support you need is by going to hospital, you could be sectioned.
I knew that going into hospital could save my life, whereas staying at home wouldn't.
Whether you go into hospital voluntarily or you're sectioned, your doctors should help you understand what's happening to you.
They should also listen to your feelings and views, and answer all your questions.
You might go into hospital straight away, or you might be able to visit the hospital ward first. This will depend on how quickly your care team think you need to get treatment and support.
If you're not sure what to pack, you could think about what you would take on a trip away.
You could take:
- Comfy clothes – you might need to take the strings out of hoodies or joggers
- Flip flops or sliders
- Books and magazines
- Toiletries and tooth brush
- Tampons or sanitary towels
- Pens and notepads without spiral binding
- Duvet cover and pillow cases
- Photos of family, friends, or partners
- A teddy bear or cuddly toy
- Something to keep you busy, like cards, a tablet or games console
- Something to listen to, like music
- Lists of important phone numbers, in case you can't use your phone
- Medication from your doctor, which you might need to give this to the hospital to look after
Different wards will have their own rules about what you can and can't bring with you.
Usually you won't be able to bring anything that could be used to harm yourself or someone else. For example, you might not be able to bring glass bottles like nail varnish, perfume or aftershave.
There are some things that you probably won't be able take onto the ward, like:
- Illegal drugs
- Medication that's not from your doctor
- Cigarettes or vapes
- Anything with a sharp blade, like a razor
If you're not sure whether you can bring something, you can always call ahead and ask. Staff might be able to suggest other options for you. For example, you could bring roll on deodorant instead of spray, or wax strips instead of razors.
When you first arrive on the ward, a member of staff should spend some time with you to help you get settled.
A nurse or doctor will also ask you some questions about your medical history and check your physical health.
This is good time to ask questions and find out about anything that is worrying you. You might want to ask:
- If you can keep your phone with you
- What time meals are
- When your family or friends can visit you
- What kind of activities they have on the ward
- How you can wash your clothes
I was met by a really friendly nurse who showed me to my room and did a bag search. She took my observations such as height, weight and blood pressure. She then showed me around the ward, and into the lounge area, where I met some of the other patients.
Don't be afraid to ask a question, even if you feel a bit embarrassed about it – staff will be used to all kinds of questions.
Hospitals have rules about what you can and can't do on the ward, and you'll be expected to follow them.
For example, there will be rules around what time meals are, what you're allowed to bring onto the ward, and how you should behave.
‘Blanket restrictions’ are rules that limit the freedom of all patients without looking at the needs of individuals. For example, your hospital saying that everyone is only allowed 1 hour of leave a week, or that no one can use social media.
Hospitals aren't allowed to use blanket restrictions, unless they are necessary.
When you're in hospital, you will be looked after by lots of different people, such as nurses, doctors and mental health professionals.
The people who look after you are called your care team. It's their job help you get the support and treatment you need to get better. This might include things like:
- Talking therapy (sometimes called counselling)
- Group therapy
- Family therapy
- Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)
- Creative therapy, like art therapy
- Movement therapy, like yoga
- Occupational therapy, like getting help with cooking, taking public transport and food shopping
- Other activities, depending on what works for you
The ward I was on had quite a structured therapy program, which was a bit like a school timetable. It contained a weekly cycle of loads of different groups, such as CBT therapy, art therapy, yoga, baking, gardening, as well as 1-to-1 time with therapists.
Your care team should always try to involve you in decisions about your treatment and support. This is known as your care plan.
Usually your care team can't give you treatment unless you agree to it. This is called giving your consent.
But there are a few situations where they may be able to give you treatment without your consent. For example, if you're too unwell to make your own decisions:
- Your parent, carer or guardian can sometimes agree on your behalf
- Your care team might think that it's in your best interests to have the treatment
It's important to understand what your rights are so you can make sure you're being treated fairly, and that you're getting all the things you need.
Your right to carry on with your studies
Your ward should speak to your school to find out what you're studying. This will help them to give you work similar to what you'd normally be doing in school.
You will be asked to do as much work as you can, as long as you're feeling well enough.
If you're 16 or 17 years old, you also have a right to training if you'd like this.
Your right to stay in touch with family and friends
You have the right to stay in touch with your family and friends while you're in hospital. You should be able to do this in different ways, such as having visitors, making phone calls or texting.
When visitors come to see you, the hospital should provide an area for you to spend time with them, like a visitor's room. They probably won't be allowed to visit you in your bedroom.
Sometimes you may not want to see someone who comes to visit you, and that's okay – staff should always ask you first.
In some situations, you might be placed a long way from home. This is sometimes called an ‘out of area placement’. If your family are struggling with travel costs, they can ask for some support. Ask your care team for more information.
Most hospitals have visiting hours and will encourage family and friends to visit you as they know how important it is for your mental wellbeing!
Your right to be on a ward with people your own age
You should be put on a ward for under 18s straightaway.
But if you're 16 or 17, there are some situations where you could be put on an adult ward.
This might happen if you need to go into hospital quickly and there are no beds on the young people's ward.
Or it might happen if being on an adult ward is better for you. For example, if you're about to turn 18 and don't want to change wards when this happens, or if you have a baby.
Your right to have privacy
Your privacy should be respected while you're in hospital.
But if your care team are worried about the safety of you or someone else, you may have less privacy.
This might mean they check on you more often, or it could mean they need to watch you all the time. If this happens, you must still be treated with respect and be listened to by your care team.
You should always be allowed to:
- Wash and dress in private
- See your visitors in private
- Send emails, text messages or get post without it being read by staff
Hospitals are designed to be a safe space, not a prison, so although it might feel enclosed at times, remember it won't be forever and staff want what's best for you!
Your right to have some internet and phone access
You should be able to have some access to your phone, social media and the internet while you're on the ward. But there might be some places you're not allowed to use your phone.
There may also be times when you're not allowed to use your phone at all. For example, if your care team are worried that it's affecting your mental health. If they do take your phone away from you, this must be for a short time, and it should be kept somewhere safe.
Your right to keep your information confidential
When you're in hospital, you have a right to your personal information being kept confidential. This means that everything you say will normally be kept between you and your care team.
Your hospital should have a policy explaining the rules they have to follow. Usually they'll only share what you've told them if:
- You want them to share it
- It will help you to get good care
- If they're worried that you or someone else could be in danger
If they do need to tell someone else what you've told them, they should always try to tell you first.
Your right to have leave from the ward
You'll be expected to spend most of your time on the ward, but you should be able to have some time away. This is called having leave. If you're sectioned, you might also hear this called section 17 leave.
Even when you're not on leave, your ward will also have an outdoor area where you can get some fresh air.
How does getting leave work?
If you want to go on leave, you should ask a nurse or doctor. They will need to think about whether it's safe for you to have time away from the ward. The might also need to check with your parent or carer.
At first your care team might only want you to leave the ward for a short time and you might need to go with someone. Over time, your leave should build up, and you might be able to leave the ward overnight.
If your care team are worried about you, they might ask you to stop going on leave for a while. It's important to remember that this will only be temporary.
Having leave from the ward might seem scary at first, but it's an important part of getting better.
Being searched at hospital
Your hospital will have rules about when staff can search you, your things, or people visiting you. For example, if they think someone has something that's not allowed on the ward, like a sharp object or alcohol.
Before searching anyone or their things, staff should check if it's okay with them. They should also explain what's happening and why, and answer any questions they have.
If you don't want to be searched, staff should talk with you and try to reach an understanding. If you still don't agree and they think you might be carrying something that's a risk to yourself or others, you might be asked to leave the ward permanently.
If someone visiting you doesn't want to be searched, they may not be allowed on the ward.
Being restrained at hospital
The law says that your care team are allowed to physically stop you if:
- You're hurting yourself or someone else
- There's a serious risk you’ll hurt yourself or someone else
This is called restraint.
Restraint should only be used if nothing else has helped to calm you down, and your care team should always try to talk to you first. But, if they have no other option than to restrain you, they must:
- Do it for the shortest time possible.
- Do it with the least force possible.
- Treat you with as much respect as possible while it's happening.
- Keep a written record of what has happened – this should be put in your notes.
Restraint should never be used as a punishment, or with the aim of hurting you.
As well as physical restraint, there are other things that staff might need to do to keep you safe. These are known as restrictive interventions.
Child services are part of organisations called local authorities. Child services can provide extra help for you while you're in hospital if you live:
- With foster parents
- In a children's home
- In a secure unit or a residential school
What if child services have a care order for me?
A care order means that a court has given child services the power to make decisions about you.
This means child services can limit your parent, carer or guardian's ability to:
- Have contact with you in hospital
- Make decisions for you while you're in hospital
Child services willl also arrange for someone to act in the place of your parent, carer or guardian, and to visit you on the ward.
If you feel like you're not being treated fairly or getting the support you need, speak to a member of your care team and explain how you're feeling.
If you don't feel confident to do this on your own, you could ask a trusted adult or an advocate for help. An advocate is someone who can listen to you and help make sure your voice is heard.
Advocates in Wales
Everyone on the ward has the right to an advocate, which is also called an Independent Mental Health Advocate (IMHA).
Making a complaint
If you still feel like you're not being treated fairly or you're unhappy about something that's happening on the ward, you can make a complaint.
You can ask the hospital about how to do this, and who you should make the complaint to.
Making a complaint can be a hard process to go through, especially when you're not feeling well. It can help to ask a trusted adult to help you, or see if there is an advocacy service on your ward. They can help you write down what you're worried about and what you want to happen.
You should try to make your complaint as soon as possible. Usually the time limit is 12 months from when the event happened or the problem started.
On my first week on the ward, I met with an advocate who explained her role to me. This advocate visited every week if anyone wanted to talk to her.
Leaving hospital can feel like a very big step.
Before you go, your care team will want to make sure you're well enough to leave, and that there's support in place for you when you get home. Leaving hospital is also known as discharge.
If you want to leave before your care team think you're ready, they should try and explain why they don't think you're ready to go. If you're in hospital as an informal patient, they can't make you stay. But, if they're worried that you might be a risk to yourself or others, they might section you. You can read more about this in our guide to being sectioned.
If you don't feel ready to leave hospital, you should speak to your care team so they can work through any worries with you.
The goal of hospital is to leave feeling stronger than when you went in, and able to cope at home, so if you don't feel like you've reached that point yet then speak up!
When you leave, you should be given:
- A discharge summary, which explains how long you were in hospital and how your recovery went while you were there.
- A care plan, which explains a bit about you and the care and support you need. This could include advice on what should happen if you're in crisis.
- Contact details for someone you can speak to if you think your mental health is getting worse.
You might also be asked to go back to the hospital for appointments, have follow up-appointments with Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) or with your doctor.
Without the support and help from the team, I really don't think I'd be alive today and have overcome my problems. Hospital is a really scary prospect but it was nowhere near as bad or as scary as I thought.
Being sectioned means that you’re kept in hospital under the Mental Health Act 1983.
There are different types of sections, each with different rules to keep you safe and give you treatment.
The length of time that you can be kept in hospital depends on which section you are on.
See our page on being sectioned for more information.Visit our full treatment and support glossary
This describes the area of the hospital you're staying in. You may also hear it called a unit.Visit our full treatment and support glossary
These are the people look after you when you're getting treatment and support for your mental health problem. Your care team might include nurses, doctors and therapists.
They may look after you in hospital, support you through Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS), or look after you at home.Visit our full treatment and support glossary
These involve talking with a professional about your thoughts, feelings and behaviour. There are many types of talking therapies, such as counselling or cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). You usually take part for an agreed length of time and number of sessions.Visit our full treatment and support glossary
This means using arts (music, drawing, painting, dancing, drama) or playing games to express your thoughts and feelings.
It can also mean doing creative activities to improve your wellbeing and confidence. For example, writing or acting out stories with other young people.
You might take part in creative therapies in a group, or by yourself.Visit our full treatment and support glossary
The name for a plan that explains your mental health problem, what treatment and support you need, and who will provide that support. Care plans might also cover what should happen if you're in a mental health crisis.Visit our full treatment and support glossary
This is when you agree to something, such as going into hospital or having treatment.
You can’t consent to something unless you are competent to (if you’re 15 or below), or you have capacity (if you’re 16 or above).
Being competent or having capacity means that you understand what you’re consenting to and what might happen if you say yes or no to it.Visit our full treatment and support glossary
This is a department of social services, run by a local authority (local government), that deals with children and young people’s social care. It's also called children and young people’s services.
Child services can:
- review your care needs
- support your parents or carers
- support you if you have a disability or special educational needs
- help protect you from harm like domestic abuse.
Visit our full treatment and support glossary
This is a document that sets out how an organisation will act in certain situations. For example, a transition policy should explain how an organisation will manage a young person leaving their services.Visit our full treatment and support glossary
When you’re in hospital for your mental health, staff can use something called 'restrictive interventions' to protect yourself and others if there is a serious risk of harm.
Restrictive interventions might include:
- physically holding you to stop you hurting yourself or someone else (sometimes called restraint)
- giving you medication to calm you down quickly (sometimes called rapid tranquilisation)
- taking you away from situations which are upsetting you (sometimes called isolation or seclusion)
- removing you from other young people on the ward for a long time (sometimes called segregation).
Whenever a restrictive intervention is used, special rules must be followed. These include:
- they must also only be for the shortest time possible
- your safety and dignity must be protected throughout
- they must be written down in your notes.
This is the local government for an area. It provides services for the people who live or are staying in the area. These include health services, social services, schools, transport and housing.
Each local government can decide how services are run. This means that some services in different areas may have different rules.Visit our full treatment and support glossary
An advocate is someone who can listen to you and help make sure your voice is heard in decisions about you.
In some situations, you will have a right to have an advocate. This is called statutory advocacy.
Even if you don’t have a right to an advocate, there are other types of advocacy that can support you to get your voice heard.
See our page on advocacy for more information.Visit our full treatment and support glossary
This means your treatment at a hospital, clinic or other service is ending. You may be discharged because:
- you’ve completed your treatment
- you’re old enough to use a different service
- you’ve asked to leave
- the next part of your treatment needs to continue somewhere else.
Your care team should explain what this means, and what will happen if you need care in the future.Visit our full treatment and support glossary
Independent mental health advocate (IMHA)
- You have a right to an IMHA if you are:
detained in hospital under a section of the Mental Health Act, but not if you are under sections 4, 5, 135 and 136
- under Mental Health Act guardianship, conditional discharge and community treatment orders (CTOs)
- discussing having certain treatments, such as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).
In Wales, voluntary patients can also have an IMHA.Visit our full listing of Legal Terms
This is any information that can be used to identify you. For example, your name, address or even your IP address.Visit our full treatment and support glossary
This means being part of a group of young people who attend therapy sessions together. It can be helpful as some problems are better understood with other people. For example, anger, self-esteem or anxiety.
You might attend group therapy as your main therapy. Or you might have treatment and support on your own as well.Visit our full treatment and support glossary
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)
This is a report completed by your hospital care team when you are discharged from hospital. It should explain any diagnosis you have and summarise the care and treatment you’ve had in hospital.Visit our full treatment and support glossary
Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS)
These are services that support young people with their mental health.
You might see them called different names sometimes, but they offer the same type of services for young people:
- In Wales, they're called Specialist Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (SCAMHS)
- In England or Wales, you might also hear them called Children and Young People’s Mental Health Services (CYPMHS)
Find out more in our CAMHS information hub.
- talk through a problem or situation that is negatively affecting your mental health
- recognise how it affects you
- work out positive coping strategies or ways to make the situation better.
It may be face-to-face, over the phone or over video call.Visit our full treatment and support glossary
This information was published in December 2020. We will revise it in 2023.
The quotes on this page are from young people we spoke to while making this information. They've given us their consent to use their quotes in our information. The words, experiences and opinions in the quotes are not related to the young people shown in any of the photographs we use.
References are available on request. If you would like to reproduce any of this information, see our page on permissions and licensing.