Dissociative disorders

Explains what dissociative disorders are, including possible causes and how you can access treatment and support. Includes tips for helping yourself, and guidance for friends and family.

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What is dissociation?

Dissociation is one way the mind copes with too much stress, such as during a traumatic event. The word dissociation can be used in different ways but it usually describes an experience where you feel disconnected in some way from the world around you or from yourself.

If you dissociate for a long time, especially when you are young, you may develop a dissociative disorder. Instead of dissociation being something you experience for a short time it becomes a far more common experience and often the main way you deal with stressful experiences.

When might I dissociate?

Watch Paul, Anamoli, Hayley and Paul talk about what life is like with different types of dissociation.

How might I experience dissociation?

Dissociation can be experienced in lots of different ways.

Psychiatrists have tried to group these experiences and give them names. This can help doctors make a diagnosis of a specific dissociative disorders. But you can have any of these dissociative experiences even if you don't have a diagnosed dissociative disorder.

Some dissociative experiences include: A doctor or psychiatrist might call these experiences:
  • having gaps in your life where you can't remember anything that happened
  • not being able to remember information about yourself or about things that happened in your life
dissociative amnesia
  • travelling to a different location and taking on a new identity for a short time (without remembering your identity)
dissociative fugue
  • feeling as though the world around you is unreal
  • seeing objects changing in shape, size or colour
  • seeing the world as 'lifeless' or 'foggy'
  • feeling as if other people are robots (even though you know they are not)
derealisation
  • feeling as though you are watching yourself in a film or looking at yourself from the outside
  • feeling as if you are just observing your emotions
  • feeling disconnected from parts of your body or your emotions
  • feeling as if you are floating away
  • feeling unsure of the boundaries between yourself and other people
depersonalisation
  • your identity shifting and changing
  • speaking in a different voice or voices
  • using a different name or names
  • switching between different parts of your personality
  • feel as if you are losing control to 'someone else'
  • experience different parts of your identity at different times
  • acting like different people, including children
identity alteration
  • find it very difficult to define what kind of person you are
  • feeling as though there are different people inside you
identify confusion

Triggers and flashbacks

A trigger is a reminder of something traumatic from the past, which can cause you to experience dissociation or other reactions. It could be a sight, sound, taste, smell or touch. It could be a situation or way of moving your body. Many different things can be or become triggers.

In a flashback you may suddenly experience traumatic sensations or feelings from the past. This might be prompted by encountering a trigger. You may experience the flashback as reliving a traumatic event in the present. A flashback may cause you to switch to another part of your identity.

I felt like my body didn’t belong to me, it was like I was an outsider watching my own story unfold.

If you have dissociated memories (because of amnesia or because you experience different identity states with different memories) then you may find that these resurface during flashbacks.


This information was published in July 2016. We will revise it in 2019.


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