Expecting a baby is an emotional time for anyone, but it can be particularly tough if you experience a mental health problem like depression or anxiety.
You might already be taking antidepressants when you become pregnant, or you might be offered antidepressants to treat a problem you develop during your pregnancy, or after giving birth, such as postnatal depression (PND).
If you are taking antidepressants, and you are planning a pregnancy or have become pregnant, you should discuss this with your GP. They will be able to give you more information about your options, and may refer you for specialist care.
I developed severe postnatal depression and OCD just three days after the birth of my daughter. I was non-functioning, I couldn't even leave the house and was suicidal... [My antidepressant] really helped, and gave me the crutch I needed to function again. I really feel like it saved my life.
What are the benefits?
While you're pregnant, and after giving birth, it's important that you are well so that can look after yourself and your baby properly.
If not taking antidepressants would mean you would become unwell or be unable to cope, you may decide that the best thing for you and your baby is to continue taking them.
Ultimately, you will need to balance the possible risks to your baby against any potential harm in not taking your medication, and come to your own decision about what's best for you, based on your own experience.
It's understandable to feel conflicted about this, and you might find it helpful to seek extra support during this time.
When I got pregnant I was terrified of not being able to look after a child in the mental state I was in. So I tried [antidepressants]. I couldn't function anywhere near as well till I had them.
What are the risks?
The risks include:
- Possible birth defects. There is evidence that taking SSRIs early in pregnancy slightly increases the risk of your baby developing heart defects, spina bifida, cleft palate and hare lip.
- Increased risk of miscarriage and premature birth.
- Withdrawal symptoms in the newborn baby. Taking any antidepressant in late pregnancy (including tricyclics, SSRIs and SNRIs) carries this risk. Withdrawal symptoms in a newborn include:
- With tricyclics: fast heartbeat, irritability, muscle spasms, restlessness, sleeplessness, fever and fits.
- With SSRIs and SNRIs: jitteriness, poor muscle tone, not being able to cry loudly, difficulty breathing, low blood sugar (which can cause fits), and high blood pressure in the lungs.
- When breastfeeding, the drug could be passed to your baby through your breast milk. It is possible that the levels could become high enough for your baby to experience side effects from the medication.
- Unknown risks. Drugs are not clinically tested in pregnant women, and newer drugs carry a higher unknown risk than drugs that have been around longer, simply because scientists have had less time to gather evidence about them.
All risks are likely to be higher during the first three months and last few weeks of your pregnancy, when your baby is more vulnerable.
What if I need to take medication?
If you feel you need to take antidepressants while pregnant or breastfeeding, you should discuss this with your doctor. They can advise you about which drugs carry fewer risks than others. For example:
- Tricyclic antidepressants are likely to be less risky than SSRIs in the early months of pregnancy.
- If you wish to breastfeed, you should avoid taking doxepin (Sinepin).
Your GP (or psychiatrist if you have one) should also be in touch with the midwife or antenatal team managing your pregnancy, who may arrange extra scans to make sure everything is developing normally.
Breastfeeding and antidepressants
Deciding whether to breastfeed your child is a very personal decision. If you're taking antidepressants, you should be aware that:
- Breastfeeding carries the risk that the drug may be passed on to the baby, and cause side effects.
- Breastfeeding has certain benefits for your baby, such as providing better nutrition and immunity against illnesses.
It’s up to you decide what’s right for you and your baby, and whether the benefits of breastfeeding outweigh the risk of side effects. For more information, you can discuss this with your doctor, midwife or antenatal team.
If you have experienced a mental health problem in the past, you might also have a higher risk of experiencing postnatal depression (PND) after you give birth. If you're worried that you might experience PND, it's worth discussing it with your doctor and midwife in advance, to make sure you have appropriate support in place.
What are the alternatives to medication?
There are a number of alternatives to antidepressants available.
If you don't want to take medication while pregnant or breastfeeding, your doctor should make every effort to help you access alternative treatments. With the right support, you might be able to manage your mental health without medication.
(See our information on coming off psychiatric drugs for guidance on how to come off your medication safely).
What other support is available?
Coming to a decision you feel comfortable with about what's right for you and your baby can be difficult. You might find it helpful to explore these options for extra support:
- Family and friends – if you're able, it can be helpful to talk through your feelings with someone you trust, such as your partner, or a close friend.
- Midwife appointments – you can talk to your midwife about how you're feeling throughout your pregnancy. They can also help make sure you receive plenty of support from your health visitor after you give birth.
- Online peer support – websites such as Netmums and Mumsnet offer a supportive online network for all parents and parents-to-be. It can be helpful to talk to other people who've had similar experiences themselves, who can reassure you that you're not alone. Elefriends is another online community where you can share your feelings about your mental health in a supportive environment. (For guidance on how to manage being online when you're feeling vulnerable, see our information on how to stay safe online).
- Specialist websites – websites such as NCT and the Breastfeeding network can also provide information and support.
You might also find it helpful to read our pages on Parenting with a mental health problem, which include information on helping yourself, looking after children and other kinds of support available.
This information was published in 2016. We will revise it in 2018.